Now we will proceed with our in depth discussion on “Stretcher bond” and “Header bond”.
What is a Stretcher Bond?
As the name itself suggests, stretcher bond is formed by laying bricks horizontally as stretchers on the faces of walls. The length of the bricks is along the horizontal direction of the wall.
Stretcher bond is used when walls of half brick thickness are to be constructed. The average size of the brick is 9cmx9cmx18cm. If the wall of thickness 9cm is to be constructed, then stretcher bond can be used.
Various types of wall constructions are done using this type of bond.
Sweden is one of the most prosperous of Scandinavian nations in Europe. It has a long history of traditions and cultural heritage. Sweden is famous for its amazing Swedish Cheese. Stockholm is a beautiful city, and its latest jewel would be the new Victoria Tower. It would be the second highest building in Stockholm after the Kaknästornet.
The name “Victoria” comes from’ the crown-princess of Sweden. Construction on this tower began in May 2009. There was a lot of debate about the final height of the building. This tower would be operated by Scandic Hotels.
Changing trends in the choice of Building materials
Nowadays, people are gaining more knowledge about eco-friendly lifestyle. They are realizing that eco-friendly materials are much better and safer as compared to the synthetic and energy intensive materials. Though use of synthetic materials give a very stylish and trendy look to the place, they are not eco-friendly. The trend is definitely away from the older classical looks, associated with bygone grandeur and towards more contemporary styling. Fabric is more textured and interesting, with graphics, florals and interesting weaves and patterns to the fore.
The palette is lighter and brighter than before, in keeping with the move away from the traditonal to the contemporary, also following what is seen as international, stylish and sophisticated. Instead of saying ‘the look has changed’, I would rather say the look and feel of traditional interiors has evolved. New design languages generated by new materials and new uses of existing materials have resulted in a truly matured genre of beautiful and amazing interiors.
Independence Hall is a national landmark in United States. It is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Chestnut street between 5th and 6th Streets. It achieved its importance primarily because this was the location where American Declaration of Independence (4th July, 1776)was signed and United States Constitution was debated and brought into force. It was further listed under the category of World Heritage Sites in 1979.
Construction of Independence Hall
Independence was constructed in Georgian Style which was prevalent and in practice in most of the English speaking countries between 1720 to 1840.
The hall was designed by two architects namely Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton and its design was executed by Woolley. Red brick was used majorly for the construction of facades and this building was popularly known as “Red Brick Building”. It is 41m in height.
A lesson for all the Civil Engineers and Designers to learn
I got a project of designing (Architectural Design) a Hostel in Lucknow, India. The Structural design that is, column positions and wall construction was already done. The client wanted me to design a Hostel keeping the column positions and exterior wall construction intact. I have written this article to address all the Civil engineering students as well as Civil Engineers to avoid making such blunders while they design. Please do read this article because understanding the intensity of the job of a Civil Engineer is must for every student and professional. I guess this realization has been washed away and forgotten in the wave of commercialism.
Hostel Design, Lucknow, India
The client mailed me the layout of the existing construction. After I studied the layout, I figured out that the Column layout was pathetic. I wonder what kind of Civil Engineer must have made the layout or if at all any Civil Engineer has done it.
Errors in Construction
Wrong size of the Columns
The size of the columns was 9”x9” and the building is supposed to be constructed upto G+2 floors which is really disastrous for the structure.
It could lead to structural failure and ultimately structural collapse.
(The duty of the Civil Engineer is to understand and not make such dramatic blunders. The consequences of this kind of structural design could be disastrous.)
9”x9” size columns are only preferred if you were to construct only a ground floor structure using M15 grade concrete. If you are to construct another floor that is (G+1), the minimum size of the column should not be less than 9”x12” using M15 grade concrete.
If the client insists on using smaller columns (9”x9”); in that case, use of M20 grade concrete should be done mandatorily and the construction should not be initiated before the client agrees to do so.
Retaining walls vary hugely in purpose and design but primarily they are structures that hold back soil, earth or other materials. This can be for a number of reasons; protecting a building, preventing downslope movement and erosion, and providing support for grade changes.
Valuation of a building depends on the type of the building, its structure and durability, on the situation, size, shape, frontage, width of roadways, the quality of materials used in the construction and present day prices of materials. Valuation also depends on the height of the building, height of the plinth, thickness of the wall, nature of the floor, roof, doors, windows etc.
The valuation of a building is determined on working out its cost of construction at present day rate and allowing a suitable depreciation.
Six Methods of Valuation
Rental Method of Valuation
Direct Comparisons of the capital value
Valuation based on the profit
Valuation based on the cost
Development method of Valuation
Depreciation method of Valuation
Rental Method of Valuation
In this method, the net income by way of rent is found out by deducting all outgoing from the gross rent. A suitable rate of interest as prevailing in the market is assumed and Year’s purchase is calculated. This net income multiplied by Year’s Purchase gives the capitalized value or valuation of the property. This method is applicable only when the rent is known or probable rent is determined by enquiries.
In this article, we will see an example of a residence of which column layout is done keeping the above three thumb rules in mind.
Column Layout for a residence
The residential villa comprises of 1 and half floors. Initially, the column size 9″x12″ had been used with the use of M15 grade of concrete. The builder wanted to save on his budget by making the columns smaller in size. That is why, the columns in the Floor plans below are 9″x9″ in size but the Engineer made sure that M20 grade of concrete would be used for Columns.
In this article, we will discuss “Types of Parking in detail” which will help us figure out the efficient way to designing Parking areas for Highways, Arterial roads, sub-arterial roads etc.
On Street Parking
As the name itself suggests, “On-street Parking” means the area allotted for Parking purpose at the sides of the roads. For efficiency in Parking system; the On street Parking is divided into two types: