The advantage of using a C-type staircase is that it can fit in a squarish area. We can also install an elevator the central area of the staircase if necessary. This practice is generally frowned upon, as fire safety regulations advice to keep staircase and lift locations separately, but sometimes we have to use this layout in case of space constraints.
I recently designed a duplex project. The requirements were simple.
On the Ground Floor
- A multipurpose hall on the ground floor
- Minimum two car parking spaces
- A private covered swimming pool on the ground floor
- Staircase and elevator for a capacity of 6 people
Our team had been asked to plan and design a small residential building of Ground + 3 floors. The requirements were to plan atleast 4 medium size apartments per floor. The plot area available was 7565 square feet. It was not rectangular, and so apartments would be of differing builtup areas. Our main target were buyers looking for a medium size 2BHK apartment. There was an additional requirement for a separate Drawing Hall for guests wherever possible.
A lot of options were proposed. Our goal was to maximize usable area for the residents. Front open margin was fixed at 12′. Side margins were fixed at 6′ 6″ on both sides. One plan was finalized after a few meetings with the developers.
The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
Entrance Tests in India
In India, there is an urgent need for a centralised application system for admissions to undergraduate engineering courses. There are standardised entrance tests for admission to Medical colleges (NEET), to Management colleges (CAT) and to Architecture colleges (NATA) as well as post-graduate Engineering courses (GATE). But under-graduate engineering students have no such facilities at this moment. Certain institutions like the IITs and CBSE have instituted entrance tests like JEE (Joint Entrance Examination — Main and Advanced) for colleges under their auspices.
It is being reported that the current HRD Minister, Mr Prakash Javadekar has called for a single entrance examination for all engineering courses across the country. The ministry is in consultation with the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and is expected to discuss about instituting common entrance test in their next meeting.
The HRD Minister has hinted at creation of a pan-India system for admissions to Engineering colleges. A National Engineering Entrance Test.
There has been a boom in private engineering colleges in recent years. The graduates from such institutes are unemployable as the quality of education is very bad. A recently published report by Aspiring Minds, the National Employability Report has revealed that 6,00,000 engineering students graduate in India every year. Their study has found that up to 80% of engineering graduates in India are unemployable. The overall quality of education has deteriorated as most of these private institutes have little infrastructure or teaching ability.
Now, the HRD ministry wants things to improve. A pan-India entrance test would allow meritorious students access to good institutes, and push bad quality institutes out of the market. This would improve the quality of education as more students would be inclined to join AICTE certified institutes.
There is also a proposal to conduct an exit test for students who pass out of engineering colleges to gauge their skill levels and employability.
Project Management is a vast and growing field of science which deals with the question of how to manage your projects more effectively.
Project management is defined as the process and activity of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources, procedures and protocols to achieve specific goals in scientific or daily problems. Project management is a process of solving problems, or taking advantage of new business opportunities.
What is a Project?
A project is an activity with a beginning, a specific goal to accomplish, a budget of time & resources, and an end. The goal can be constructing a new apartment building, expanding your business into new product categories, or expanding your distribution network. All projects have constraints of man power, time and money.
A Project Manager has to be good at getting things done. She should have the technical and interpersonal skills required to complete the project. Her job includes identifying the work that needs to be done, building a schedule, launching the project and monitoring performance to make sure it stays on time and within budget. Strong leadership skills are a necessary trait in a successful project manager.
This report outlines the process in which a planning application is analysed at the planning committee meeting. It discusses the role of different members present in the meeting in the planning application process. Different stages of planning application process have been studied, which include pre-application advice, application submission, role of validation team, role of development control officer and planning committee involvement. Different types of applications have been mentioned. The planning application selected for analysis has been described. The planning officer’s report contents have been briefly summarised. The stages in the process of planning application assessment have been explained in detail. Lastly, the planning application process has been critically analysed.
Background study of Planning Application Process
Planning takes places within the context of a system which is defined by Legislation, Regulations and Orders, Case Law, National policy and advice (NPPF), local plans (Neighbourhood plans), appeals and enforcement.
Local Planning Authorities (LPAs) evaluate planning applications. This will be either District/Borough/City/Unitary/County/London/Borough/Metropolitan/National Park.
The applicant has an option to get free “Pre-application advice”. The applicant can discuss the documents with the council in presence of planning officers and get advice on the list of required documents for application approval. This is an optional service and depends on the applicant’s desire to use it. Instead, the applicant can directly submit the application to Local authority.
The application is then passed on to the Validation team who is responsible for checking all the documents against the local list (where all the policies relating to the application are considered) in order to validate if relevant. The application is then forwarded to the Development manager or Development control Officer (DC).
DC stage has two options.
- It is delegated by the officer. In this case, if the planning application is straightforward, the consent is given by the DC officer alone.
- Sometimes, there is a need for the planning committee to intervene and decide if the application is to be approved or refused. The DC officer sends his comments to the committee regarding his thoughts and analysis of the application.
Role of Planning Committee
Major and contentious applications are dealt with by Planning Committees. They also inspect the sites before coming to a conclusion. The Planning Committee includes Councillors from all political parties and areas of the City. Officers of the Council also attend to answer questions about the reports.
Urban redesign proposals
Around 60% of the traffic uses the main road of the shopping street as a bypass route. The road connects places such as LB nagar, Saroor nagar, Vanasthalipuram, Charminar, Dilsukhnagar etc. There is lot of traffic of the buses which is creating lot of chaos and congestion on the main street.
Suggested Proposal to solve Traffic Problem:
Proposal for a one-way flyover (40’ wide)
As an attempt to solve the problem of the traffic movement, we are suggesting the proposal of a Flyover for one-way traffic which will take around 80% of the bus traffic.
Traffic issues at Abids | Urban Design
Permanent traffic of the stretch considered (SBH-GPO) is the traffic of the shop owners and the employees. This is like a fixed percentage of traffic.
Flowing Traffic – Major Bus Traffic
Apart from this stretch being a major shopping Street in Abids, it also serves as a bypass route for going to Vanasthalipuram, Saroornagar, LBnagar, Dilsukhnagar and Charminar areas.
The movement of buses on this route is intense and causes lot of chaos which is not even relevant to Abids. There is a heavy percentage of Flowing Traffic on this stretch.
Staggered traffic is usually found on the junctions. There are two major junctions on this stretch. The roads connecting the main street are two way roads. They can also be termed as “feeder roads”.
50% of the traffic here on this main shopping street is the floating traffic. People park their vehicles wherever they find it easier and closer to get access to get their stuff and leave. The most chaos and cause of inconvenience is caused by floating traffic because they do not have an organized parking pattern.
Parking problems identified
On Street Parking
Main Shopping Street
The Parking of the vehicles especially two wheelers is done on the pavements or on the streets. This has led to the wrong practice of parking by the people. People go for On-street Parking because of the lack of Parking space.
Building and Cellar Parking
There is a very little percentage of Parking facility provided by the respective shop owners for their customers.
For example, Big Bazaar
Big Bazaar has a provision for cellar Parking and Parking in the setbacks. Cellar Parking is very unsuccessful in Big Bazaar. People have an issue with easy access to the Parking area and hence they rather prefer parking it on the streets.
The shop owners and the employees of the respective shop owners park their vehicles as close to their shops or showrooms as possible. This Parking percentage does not vary with increasing traffic or parking.
Co relation of formal and Informal Activities | Urban Design
Studying the co-relation of formal and informal activities is very important. Abids as mentioned earlier in one of the oldest commercial neighbourhood of the city of Hyderabad. It has established formal and informal activities. They relate to each other and surprisingly there are different types of informal sellers that we call hawkers.
Types of Commodities
- Cellphone Accessories such as Mobile covers, headphones etc.
Relationship between formal and informal shopping areas
The informal shopping areas evolved because of the influence of the existing formal shops.
Factors that influence the existence of the informal shops:
- Type of formal shops
- Crowd (people)
Types of formal shops
Some percentage of informal shops evolved because of a strong influence of the type of formal sector. The informal shopping development generally include the accessories of the major commodity sold in the formal shops/showrooms.
Hawkers around Hollywood
Hollywood is a footwear showroom. All the accessories related to footwear are available in the informal shopping area adjacent to Hollywood. Also, the accessories such as watched, goggles etc have been seen to exist around.
The informal sector around Hollywood is very popular.
The area between Hollywood ad Kamal Watch is their setback area.
Two wheeler paid parking is prevalent here. The funds collected by paid parking are distributed between the two showrooms Hollywood and Kamal Watch respectively.
Emphasis of Crowd on the informal Activities
The informal activity gets a boost in their business because of the following two reasons:
- Kind of Crowd
- Volume of Crowd
Kind of Crowd
People who prefer shopping on streets from the informal shop owners are in encouraging number.
Volume of Crowd
Wherever there is a huge of volume of crowd, the informal activities are larger in number.
Economic Status of the Hawkers
Types of Hawkers
As per our casestudy, the types of Hawkers can be classified into three major categories:
- Senior Hawkers
- Rental Hawkers
- Hawkers permitted by formal shops
Senior Hawkers and their economic status
These hawkers have existed at a particular place for a minimum of 35 years. Some of these senior hawkers have been there even before the major formal showrooms came up. The formal shop owners cannot shoo them off from their place.
Rental Hawkers are dependent on Senior Hawkers. If any newer hawker wants to establish his informal activity at a particular place where senior hawker once sold his goods; they have to pay rentals to the Senior for carrying out their sales activity.
The hawker selling belts on the footpath paid 10,000/- to the senior hawker to carry out his sales activity.
The rental network does not stop here.
Rentals paid by the Hawkers:
Economically stable Hawkers
Buying New Materials
Income split into two partners
Economically Backward Hawkers
Buying New Materials
|20,000/-||5,000/-||300/-||5000/- or commodities||3,000/-||6700|
The amount collected by police depends on the income of the Hawker.
Hawkers permitted by Formal Shop owners
Formal shop owners use these hawkers to their advantage.
When shop owners keep their shops shut for a long time because of a certain reason, they permit these hawkers to practice their hawking activity until they open their shops again. They do this for two reasons:
Prevention from dirtying of the surrounding area of the shop.
Evolution of Market – 35 years ago
Type of Market – Informal type of Market laid on footpaths and roads.
Commodities sold : Books and Clothes
Timing : 10am to 6pm
Peak Shopping hours : 4pm to 6pm
History of Sunday Bazaar
The informal activity in Koti has given a boost to the development of weekly informal activity which is today known as Sunday Bazaar.
Initially, market for books was a trend only in Koti which later spread to Abids.
Informal market for clothes gradually developed.
Identity of Hawkers
Basically Sunday Bazaar Hawkers are people who work in either private shops or municipal offices on week days.
To make extra money on weekends, they sell clothes or books in Sunday Bazaar.They follow a system of “FIRST COME FIRST SERVE BASIS”.
They are employees from private shops or government offices.
On an average, they make 2000/- on Sunday.
Relation between Formal and Informal Activity
Sunday Bazaar influenced some of the formal shop owners to keep their shops open on Sundays. But the existence of Sunday Bazaar is not influenced by the formal Sector.
Case study of Abids | Urban Renewal
Understanding the concept of Urban Design and the reason for selecting the topic
Selection of a Zone in the area for detailed study and analysis (10,00000 sqm approx.)
Division of the major study zone into smaller zones for detailed study
After division of zones, study was conducted in a systematic way as follows:
Study to be done for every zone:
Identification and Classification of Buildings
- Residential buildings
- Commercial buildings
- Heritage structures if any
- Religious structures
- Identification of land use pattern depending on the type of building
- Influence of various land use activities on the commercial activities
- Identification of the types of commercial activities in every zone
- Identification of the type of road