## Classification of Surveys according to the methods Employed in Surveying

#### Classification of Surveys according to the methods employed | Civil Engineering

In our previous articles, we discussed classification of Surveys according to their purpose in Surveying. Now we will go on with the discussion on classification of surveys according to the method of work.

#### Here are the two methods employed for Surveying:

1. Triangulation Survey
2. Transverse Survey

#### Triangulation Survey

The selected survey stations are connected with survey lines in such a way resulting in the formation of network of triangles. This survey is useful in surveying larger areas with uneven site boundaries.

The various formulas of the triangle are used to determine and area and various dimensions of the site.

#### Transverse Survey

The whole area is divided into various transverses for the easy surveying. Since this method involves division of survey area into various transverse, it is termed as Transverse Survey.

A transverse is a geometrical figure consisting of more than three sides.

## Classification of Surveys and Surveying Methods in Engineering

#### Classification of Survey

Study of classification of surveys is a major part of the study of Surveying as a whole. The surveys are conducted using various different instruments. The use of instruments depend upon its availability and suitability to the site.

#### Surveys are classified as following:

1. According to the instruments used for the survey
2. According to the purpose of the survey
3. According to the method employed for the survey
4. According to the field of work

In this article, we will list out the classification in each and category and study them in detail…

#### According to the instruments used

Chain Survey

Chain Survey is conducted using different lengths of chains specifically made for the surveying purpose.

Compass Survey

As the name itself suggests, the compass is used for the purpose of the survey.

Plane table Survey

Plane table is used for the purpose.

Levelling

Theodolite Survey

Theodolite is an instrument that is useful for conducting accurate surveys.

## Introduction to Surveying | Civil Engineering

#### Surveying

Surveying is the art of making suitable measurements in horizontal or vertical planes. This is one of the important subjects of civil engineering. Without taking a survey of the plot where the construction is to be carried out, the work cannot begin.

#### Levelling

Levelling is the art of representing relative positions in the vertical plane of different points on the earth’s surface.

It helps in determining the areas that are to be levelled to achieve a certain slope.

#### Principles of Surveying

All the surveys that are conducted are based on two fundamental principles. They are as follows:

1. Working from whole to part
2. Fixing a point with reference to two fixed points

#### Working from whole to part

In order to localize errors and prevent their accumulation, a set of control points is always established with great precision first for the whole area to be surveyed.

Later on, details or filled in between these control points to a relatively smaller precision.

This fundamental work principle is known as “Working from whole to part”.

#### Fixing a point with reference to two fixed points

Survey stations are fixed by atleast two measurements, either both linear or angular measurements or linear and angular measurements from two control points.