## Understanding Load Calculations | Structural Design

#### Load Calculations | Design of Buildings

In our earlier article, we discussed “Different types of loads” and their importance in Structural design.

#### Now we will move on with our further discussion on the following points:

• Design principle assumption and notation assumed
• Design Constant
• Assumptions regarding Design
• Loads on Beams
• Loads on slabs

#### Design principle assumption and notation assumed:

The notations adopted throughout are same as given in IS:456:2000

Density of material used in accordance with reference to IS:857-1987s

 Sr.no Material Density 1 Plain concrete 24 KN/m3 2 Reinforced cement concrete 25 KN/m3 3 Flooring material (cement mortar) 1.00 KN/m3 4 Brick masonry 19 KN/m3

#### Design constant

Using M20 and Fe415 grade of concrete and steel respectively for columns and footings

Therefore:

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M15 – 15 N/mm2

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M15 – 15 N/mm2

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M20 – 20 N/mm2

Fy – i. e. Characteristic strength for steel – 415 N/mm2

## Introduction to the calculation of the loads | Building Construction

#### Load Calculations | Types of Loads

Students find it difficult to understand the concept of loads although it is a very simple concept. We are going to write a series of articles on “Load Calculations” and help you all in understanding different types of loads that are to be considered for structural designing and also how to calculate them.

In this article, we will discuss different types of loads with examples.

#### An object is subject to mainly two types of forces:

1. Live loads
2. Dead loads

Basically, an object subject to any type of force which could be gravitational force (weight), pressure or anything affects the object is called a load.

This concept is used in Mechanical and structural engineering. Let’s take in terms of Structural Engineering. Whenever a structure is designed, these concepts are taken into consideration because real world objects are analyzed in order to design the structure. This is very important in terms of structural stability.

#### What are “Dead loads”?

As the name itself suggests, dead loads could be termed as self weight of the non-living objects. It could be the weight of the materials, equipments or any other components in the structure that will remain permanent throughout the life of the structure.

Dead load has to be considered in order to make the structural design accordingly. Dead loads vary from structure to structure. Every building is unique and has different considerations.

An additional load is considered in case additional forces build up in a structure in case of settlement or due to secondary effects of pre-stress construction or due to shrinkage of concrete.

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