## Understanding Load Calculations | Structural Design

#### Load Calculations | Design of Buildings

In our earlier article, we discussed “Different types of loads” and their importance in Structural design.

#### Now we will move on with our further discussion on the following points:

• Design principle assumption and notation assumed
• Design Constant
• Assumptions regarding Design

#### Design principle assumption and notation assumed:

The notations adopted throughout are same as given in IS:456:2000

Density of material used in accordance with reference to IS:857-1987s

 Sr.no Material Density 1 Plain concrete 24 KN/m3 2 Reinforced cement concrete 25 KN/m3 3 Flooring material (cement mortar) 1.00 KN/m3 4 Brick masonry 19 KN/m3

#### Design constant

Using M20 and Fe415 grade of concrete and steel respectively for columns and footings

Therefore:

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M15 – 15 N/mm2

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M15 – 15 N/mm2

Fck – i. e. Characteristic strength for M20 – 20 N/mm2

Fy – i. e. Characteristic strength for steel – 415 N/mm2

## Bending Moment and Fixed Moment Calculations

#### What is Bending Moment?

The element bends when a moment is applied to it. Every structural element has bending moment. Concept of bending moment is very important in the field of engineering especially Civil engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

Unit of measurement: Newton-metres (N-m) or pound-foot or foot-pound (ft.lb)

Bending moment is directly proportional to tensile and compressive stresses. Increase in tensile and compressive stresses results in the increase in the bending moment. These stresses also depend on the second moment of area of the cross section of the element.

#### What is Shear stress?

Shear stress is defined as the measure of force per unit area. Shear stress occurs in shear plane. There are many planes possible at any point in a structure which can be defined to measure stress.

Stress = Force/Unit area

#### Simply supported bending moment

Mab = wl2/8 = (22×4.14×4.14)/8

= 47.13 KN-m

Mbc = wl2/8 = (22×4.14×4.14)/8

= 47.13 KN-m

## Calculation of loads for Column and Foundation Design | Structural Design

#### How to calculate the total loads on a column and corresponding footing?

This article has been written on the request from my readers. Engineering students generally get confused when it comes to calculating loads for column and footings design. The manual process is simple.

#### Types of loads on column

1. Self weight of the column x Number of floors
2. Self weight of beams per running meter
3. Load of walls per running meter