# Calculation of loads for Column and Foundation Design | Structural Design

#### How to calculate the total loads on a column and corresponding footing?

This article has been written on the request from my readers. Engineering students generally get confused when it comes to calculating loads for column and footings design. The manual process is simple.

#### Types of loads on column

1. Self weight of the column x Number of floors
2. Self weight of beams per running meter
3. Load of walls per running meter

The columns are also subjected to bending moments which have to be considered in the final design. The best way to design a good structure is to use advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD Pro. These tools are leagues ahead of manual methodology for structural design, and highly recommended.

In professional practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations.

You can hire me for your structural design need. Contact me.

For Columns

Self weight of Concrete is around 2400 kg per cubic meter, which is equivalent to 240 kN. Self weight of Steel is around 8000 kg per cubic meter. Even if we assume a large column size of 230 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 3 meters standard height, the self weight of column is around 1000 kg per floor, which is equivalent to 10 kN. So, in my calculations, I assume self weight of column to be between 10 to 15 kN per floor.

For Beams

Similar calculations as above. I assume each meter of beam  has dimensions of 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness. So, the self weight can be around 2.5 kN per running meter.

For Walls

Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. For a 6″ thick wall of 3 meter height and a length of 1 meter, we can calculate the load per running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg which is equivalent to 9 kN/meter. You can calculate load per running meter for any brick type using this technique.

For autoclaved, aerated concrete blocks like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter. By using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter, which can result in a significant reduction in the cost of construction.

For Slab

Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. Now each square meter of slab would have a self weight of 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. So, we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter.

Factor of Safety

In the end, after calculating the entire load on a column, please do not forget to add in the factor of safety. For IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.

You can use RCC Column Design app to calculate steel required for the calculated axial load using this method.

### 54 thoughts on “Calculation of loads for Column and Foundation Design | Structural Design”

1. how to calculate load calculation for any structural building (ex..PEB/ Structural Building)

2. Hello,

My company wants to build a new sign. It will be constructed of concrete footing. The sign will be 8x8x16 filled concrete blocks. I need help with calculating the footing size. Can you help me?

Regards,

Leonard

3. I want to know how to calculate for structural load members for a ground floor concrete

4. Hi
I want to know how to calculate structural members load,
Which is below ground
Thanks

• You will have to consider soil pressure exerted on the structural member. There is no shortcut thumb rule for that.

5. Thanks for help

6. I need the calculation of structural design

7. I want to know how to calculate design of pile foundation for barrage

8. Hi
I want to know how to calculate structural members load,
Which is below ground?

9. hii m an architecture 3rd year student frim Maharashtra Nagpur tell me how to do column calculation and the footting design for architectural design

10. sir
how we can to design a mini football stadium?

11. Nice for everyone

12. Hello sir its my final exam and I have research project in vertical structure therefor kindly request from you give me information about kani method thanks.

13. clear and concise information

14. My friends new house was constructed on soft soil.the houes is g+1.it is rcc framed structure with isolated footing .the columns are 300x300mm .there are 20 column and spacing is 3mtr.in the first floor rcc slab roof is provided.footing of size 1.7*1.7mtr and 1.8 mtr deep was provided. 8nos 16mm dia rod is provided in columns .now after seeing some site on foundation design she is worried whether it is safe or not. kindly reply

• Don’t worry your building is enough strong to take load of 3 floor more

15. dear madam can you help me with the formula of finding the depth of a foundation when given pressure as 23 ,weight of the soil as 423kg and the angle of repose 35degrees

16. wht dimension of raft foundation may be suitable for a three storey security building having floor area.14ft*12ft, having soil bearing capacity 150n/mm2..using m20 comcrete?

17. what is the workflow of structural designing from begining to end. write somebody step by step

18. Dear sir,i want to know how to design the structural members….that means by keeping one buliding plan how to design the structural members i knw how to design by using problems types..but using one building plan how to design entire structural members ….i want to know the procedure with example plz hel me sir…kindly i request u

• Hello Ventakesh,

Here the RCC Building Design Guide

This should answer all your questions. I recommend that you go through the guide thoroughly.

Cheers 🙂

19. WHAT CAN BE THE MAXIMUM SPAN OF CONTINOUS SLAB/BEAM STRUCTURE BETWEEN TWO SUPPORTS IN A FOUR STORYED STRUCTURE ,I ASSUME 7M BUT ARCHITECT SAYS 3 M

• Well, that depends on the structural design. The steel design has to be appropriate. The span could go beyond 7m. It could be huge. 3m is the minimum distance between two supports.

20. I WANT A BOOK FOR RCC DESIGN.

• design of concrete structure by arthur. H. nilson

21. m planning to build double storey house 17mx8m. Can u plis specify the number of coloumns to be erected and its sizes and also the beam sizes. Also the proper spacing of the coloumns. Bottom is open carport and level 1 is 2bedrooms,1m/bedrooms,kitchen,study rooms and small porch plus back porch as laundary areas.

thnx

22. benzu,
i computed all the total load?how will it be distributed in order to determine the dimension of the footing?

can you explain me . the self weight of one coumn 9″x9″ for 13feet length that is from gl to roof level.
thank you
christopher

Can you explain generally the load calculation for ground floor in kg /m2 for column , beam,only. i donot want in kN/M2.
Thank you
christopher

25. major causes of cracks in building?.
how to start a foundation?
the caiculatoin of the total cash required?

26. hi madam, im civil engg im doing analysis in stad pro,pls can u tell me 1 ex after analysis whats the procedure to do the design

pls tell formulas and tumb rules

tank u

27. can you please add 1 detail example using formula’s of calculating all columns, beams, slabs Live & dead load, please

28. Hi,
I am a civil engineering student studying final year. Can I know in which field does a civil engineer work.

29. hey i want design the building in my life time
tell me what should i learn to become design Engineer atleast iwant to design one building in my lifetime provided should be safe

30. hello sir,
can you please tell me how can I calculate self load of colum or beam.

31. Hi,

I am going for construction of my own house – residential building with stilt + Ground+ 2 to 3 floors. The contractor is suggesting some measurements of foundation columns.

Could you please let me know what are the measurements of columns in general for a building of above and the depth of the column should be.
Thanks & Regards
Balaji

• Hello Balaji,
I suggest you should hire a qualified Civil engineer for the job and not take structural based decisions yourself. This site is meant for people who are Civil engineers, civil engineering students, architects and architecure students and of course for people who are interested in gaining knowledge about structures.
In no case is a layman allowed to take decisions regarding structural design. So please do consult a civil engineer and get the structural design. Every project is unique and needs designing accordingly.

Thank you.

Thanks Million

• Hi! Hemanth
Is their any norms on considering constants of various loads for independent residential building?
each span varies from 12′-0″ to 15′-0″
Thanks.

32. my question is simple how to decide number of columns for a given area of a bldg. what are the simple thumb rules……

33. Am happy to see you guys, need to learn more from you…

• thank you mam your information

• Welcome Rizwan!
Do keep visiting.

Cheers 🙂

• Mam i have done my diploma but i got some backlogs in dce(diploma in civil engg)

Now we just hope that whatever doubts and difficulties you have had must be clear now. Do keep visiting the site because this site has been specially designing for Civil engineering and Architecture students.

Cheers 🙂

34. Hi,

Thanks for the useful information. I am totally new to this field and I have a couple of queries,

1. How can I calculate the number of columns required for a building, say a building of two storeys of 2400 sq.ft?

2. The size of the columns, the column footings size, the steel used in the column etc are dependent on the load on the columns. So should I calculate the total load of the building and distribute the load equally on the number of columns?

• Hi

i am constructing my own house with 3 floors.

i would like to know, is there any spread sheet templates for load calculations (Eg Dead loads , earthquake and wind loads) in online or anywere.

i can purchase through online also, if available. if you know any reputed sources pls let me know.

regards
Pratheep