Staircase Design| RCC Structures

RCC Staircase Design

RCC Structures are nothing but reinforced concrete structures. RCC structure is composed of building components such as Footings, Columns, Beams, Slabs, Staircase etc.

These components are reinforced with steel that give stability to the structure. Staircase is one such important component in a RCC structure.

Dog Legged Stair | Staircase design

Dog Legged Stair | Staircase design

In this article, we will discuss different types of staircases and study the dog-legged reinforced cement concrete staircase design.


Stairs consist of steps arranged in a series for purpose of giving access to different floors of a building. Since a stair is often the only means of communication between the various floors of a building, the location of the stair requires good and careful consideration.

In a residential house, the staircase may be provided near the main entrance.

In a public building, the stairs must be from the main entrance itself and located centrally, to provide quick accessibility to the principal apartments.

All staircases should be adequately lighted and properly ventilated.

Various types of Staircases

  • Straight stairs
  • Open newel stair
  • Geometrical stair

RCC Dog-legged Staircase design

In this type of staircase, the succeeding flights rise in opposite directions. The two flights in plan are not separated by a well. A landing is provided corresponding to the level at which the direction of the flight changes.

Procedure for Dog-legged Staircase design

Based on the direction along which a stair slab span, the stairs maybe classified into the following two types.

  1. Stairs spanning horizontally
  2. Stairs spanning vertically

Stairs spanning horizontally

These stairs are supported at each side by walls. Stringer beams or at one side by wall or at the other side by a beam.


  • Dead load of a step        = ½ x T x R x 25
  • Dead load of waist slab = b x t x 25
  • Live load                       = LL (KN/m2)
  • Floor finish                    = assume 0.5 KN/m

Stairs spanning Longitudinally

In this, stairs spanning longitudinally, the beam is supported ay top and at the bottom of flights.


  • Self weight of a step          = 1 x R/2 x 25
  • Self weight of waist slab  = 1 x t x 25
  • Self weight of plan             = 1 x t x 25[(R2 + T2)/T]
  • Live load                               = LL (KN/m2)
  • Floor finish                           = assume 0.5 KN/m

For the efficient design of an RCC stair, we have to first analyse the various loads that are going to be imposed on the stair.

The load calculations will help us determine, how much strength is required to carry the load. The strength bearing capacity of a staircase is determined on the amount of steel and concrete used.

The ratio of steel to concrete has to be as per standards. Steel in the staircase will take the tension imposed on it and the concrete takes up the compression.

These are the essential steps that are to be followed for the RCC Stair Design.

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  1. #1 by Mahmoud Zolfaghari on October 11, 2016 - 11:26 pm

    If any of guys have design example free standing slabless concrete stair please email it. I will appreciate it. Thanks

  2. #2 by Simon (Nextgen) ODUME on June 15, 2016 - 12:12 am

    I find this site educative. Thanks to the providers.
    Staircase design needs care and is very important to know what it’s functions are. We ought to know that it must be fire-proof. In fact, it requires space for easy movement of individuals and furniture, cos it’s a fire escape root. Though commercial buildings requires much space than the residential buildings but really, space is required for easy access. Concrete mix ratio depends on the quality of the material used and the environment. Topography matters.

  3. #3 by Erick Kitua on April 16, 2016 - 12:16 pm

    nice and very educative

  4. #4 by M zaher nazari on April 11, 2016 - 5:13 pm

    i need information about beam and moment of the beam

  5. #5 by engr Linus eze (smart) on December 13, 2015 - 8:11 am

    staircase creation in any building depend on the type of stair and purpose of that structure.
    eg: Dog legged stair
    straight stair
    open newel or geometrical stairs
    normally: Riser should not excide 6 inches
    Tread length 300mm
    Tread width 1200mm depending on the usage.
    and using normal ratio of 1:2:3 of concrete mixture and also mixed verry well and not to wait to regain more strainght and also the reinforcement spacing should not excide 4 to 5inches bot main and distribution bars and well fixed in the walls and well ancord inside the columns and living openings for handrails before casting.

  6. #6 by moeen akhter on June 3, 2015 - 4:59 pm

    nice discussion and great web site

  7. #7 by anand on May 13, 2015 - 12:59 pm

    I want know how to calculate quantity of concrete in staircase

  8. #8 by najeebahmad on March 5, 2015 - 12:55 pm

    I like it very much, thanks

  9. #9 by rahul on November 14, 2014 - 11:27 pm

    We are constructing stairscase for residential building. Below is specification. Please check is it correct?
    Width: 3 feets
    Hight: 5 Feets (for 10 feets hight, 5′-5′)
    Thickness: 4 inches
    Steel: 7 nos, 12 mm
    Reinforcement: 1:2.5:2.5

  10. #10 by shuja on October 29, 2014 - 7:15 pm

    what is the standard size of tread depth,width and riser?

    • #11 by BenzuJK on November 25, 2014 - 10:02 pm

      Hello Shuja,

      For a residence it is,
      tread width = 90cm
      tread depth = 30cm
      riser = 15cm

  11. #12 by shuja on October 29, 2014 - 7:13 pm

    what is the standard measurement for tread and riser in residential house

  12. #13 by Raghavendra ashwath v gudi on January 15, 2014 - 5:16 pm

    thank you giving information reg staircase

  13. #14 by srikantegowda n on September 24, 2013 - 8:52 am

    design an open newl staircase for an office building in a room of inner dimension 3.25×3.25.width of stair =1m.floor to floor height=3.60m.stair has to be provided along all walls and all four flights carry equal number of steps.draw the plan and sectional elevation of any one flight.

    • #15 by BenzuJK on October 22, 2013 - 8:02 am

      HEllo Srikant,

      Are you a student? IS that why you have put up a question here? I guess that should be your assignment…

  14. #16 by ajayi sunday on June 4, 2013 - 1:04 am

    this is different from what i read in textbook,are they still the same thing?

    • #17 by BenzuJK on June 9, 2013 - 5:42 am

      Different books talk about different procedures of design. But the design outcome is the same. You can embrace whichever method suits you and you find it easier.

  15. #18 by Harish on March 12, 2013 - 2:45 am

    Nice it could be very used for my job….. Thank you

  16. #19 by Shashikala on February 7, 2013 - 10:00 pm

    thank u

  17. #20 by abreham on November 29, 2012 - 1:51 am

    I want to know the steps of design fabric building which has dynamic load and static load.excuse help me.

  18. #21 by dharmendra malviya on October 12, 2012 - 1:59 am

    thanks your help

  19. #22 by walse nutan on July 30, 2012 - 7:47 am

    good knowledge of rcc

  20. #23 by Asim on June 14, 2012 - 4:38 am

    WOW… I never realized that there are actually different “types” of stairs!
    they all look the same to me.. how is a dog legged stair case different from a straight stair case???

  21. #24 by mohd mohsin ahmed on May 30, 2012 - 12:53 am

    i want to know how much steel required for staircase and how can be calculate

  22. #25 by ganesh gurung on May 25, 2012 - 3:04 am

    I found this site very educative.i am just a beginner in civil engineering field but i have accumulated a lot of ideas for future references.thank you once again.

  23. #26 by wakas on April 19, 2012 - 8:50 am

    what unit we use with total load in horizental and longitude stair?
    pplz someone tell me….

  24. #27 by Abishek raj on April 17, 2012 - 4:20 am

    I want to know , how to calculate reaction in beam.

  25. #28 by rampal on March 4, 2012 - 11:54 pm

    fantastic site, very good details provided..

    • #29 by maviya on June 5, 2012 - 4:24 am

      i loved it…

  26. #30 by dawud on February 27, 2012 - 1:10 pm

    good day…

    i need to design stairs lay on the ground (outdoor stairs) w/ 5-20m difference in elevation. what analysis should i used?

  27. #31 by getachew dessalegn on February 21, 2012 - 1:40 am

    Thank you your support!

  28. #32 by Jean Buendia on February 16, 2012 - 4:05 am

    Very informative site

  29. #33 by Surya on February 2, 2012 - 11:41 pm

    We are constructing stairscase for residential building. Below is specification. Please check is it correct?
    Width: 3 feets
    Hight: 5 Feets (for 10 feets hight, 5′-5′)
    Thickness: 4 inches
    Steel: 7 nos, 12 mm
    Reinforcement: 1:2.5:2.5

  30. #34 by oliver on January 26, 2012 - 4:52 am

    i would like to know how to design for an inclined column

  31. #35 by Niren on January 24, 2012 - 10:02 pm

    Can you pl. share details of precast stringer beam?

  32. #36 by nusrat fayaz on January 14, 2012 - 12:23 am

    this site is excellent

    • #37 by BenzuJK on January 18, 2012 - 8:27 am

      Thank you for your kind words of appreciation Nusrat!

  33. #38 by gene macabodbod on January 12, 2012 - 8:22 pm

    Good day, kindly give me a detailed design of a stair for classroom purposes in detail. simply an example, Thanks

  34. #39 by Akhtar Munir on December 13, 2011 - 9:31 pm

    why shear reinforcement is not provided in slab design

    • #40 by BenzuJK on July 26, 2013 - 5:40 pm

      Shear reinforcement is provided in the beam. Shear reinforcement prevents the beams from breaking into two pieces because of load. The load from the slab is transmitted to the columns and beams and then to the foundation. Hence, the slabs do not require shear reinforcement.

  35. #41 by ashik on November 2, 2011 - 10:47 am

    nice discussion

  36. #42 by sualih on October 28, 2011 - 4:14 pm

    Thank You!

  37. #43 by osvaldo on October 7, 2011 - 3:06 pm

    I would like to be upgraded with the regular information about structures.

  38. #44 by Arun sharma on August 21, 2011 - 8:01 am

    I want to know the minimum width of tread & minimum dia of steel reinforcement to be used in the stair.

    • #45 by BenzuJK on August 28, 2011 - 8:26 am

      Hello Arun,
      The minimum width of the tread for a stair should not be less than 25cm.
      The minimum diameter of steel reinforcement to be used in the staircase design should not be less than 6mm in diameter.

      I hope I have made it clear enough.

      Cheers 🙂

  39. #46 by Arun sharma on August 21, 2011 - 7:54 am

    I need the reinforcement detail of combination of straight & semi circular stair.

  40. #47 by Roohullah on August 21, 2011 - 2:10 am

    Thank you for your useful site.

    • #48 by lamesa on May 2, 2012 - 3:48 pm

      examples on stairs design

  41. #49 by Ajaz ul haque on July 23, 2011 - 10:03 pm

    I like it very much, thanks

  42. #50 by R. K. SHARMA on July 5, 2011 - 9:55 am

    what does it mean “excavation over area” as described in “4.7 Excavation Over Area” in IS 1200 ( Part 1 ) : 1992 Indian Standard for METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING
    link is

    • #51 by BenzuJK on July 6, 2011 - 11:16 pm

      As it is clearly decribed Excavation Over Area
      “Excavation exceeding I’5 m in width as well as 10 m2 on plan, and 300 mm in depth shall be described as excavation over areas and
      measured in cubic metres”.

      This term is used like a thumb rule. When an engineer writes “Excavation Over Area”, it is understood what it implies…

      I hope I have made it clear.

      • #52 by peter on March 21, 2012 - 4:59 am

        hey, how can i get back to you for more querries apart from Gravatar?

        Kind Regards,


      • #53 by s.a.fatha on August 4, 2012 - 2:39 am

        hi this is s.a.fatha from Hyderabad,India,work on the Architecture designing, very good of your design

  43. #54 by VAMSI KRISHNA on March 23, 2011 - 1:29 pm


  44. #55 by Jitendra on March 5, 2011 - 11:51 pm

    i want to calculate tthe qyty of cement steeletc.

  45. #56 by sasidhar on February 7, 2011 - 11:07 pm

    i need one detail that is design of waist slab and landing is only the same thing or we have to do supperate design for landing slab or not?
    or we can provide same design to landing slab and waist slab

  46. #57 by mulindwa on February 6, 2011 - 10:34 am

    how are RCC straight staircases of a seven storyed structure constructed

    • #58 by shubham gupta on August 19, 2012 - 2:02 am


  47. #59 by sameer on January 24, 2011 - 9:21 am

    i loved it

  48. #60 by s.thiru on December 30, 2010 - 11:52 pm

    your RCC theory very good………

  49. #61 by Narayan on November 29, 2010 - 3:44 am

    give the genral thumb rule for designing of structural element& u have give great information of designing of slab,staircase.

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