Foundation of a structure is like the roots of a tree without which the tree cannot stand. The construction of any structure, be it a residence or a skyscraper; starts with the laying of foundations.
Before designing the foundation, the type of soil is determined. Depending on whether the soil is hard soil or soft soil, a specific type of foundation is adopted.
Foundations are made in various materials… They could be reinforced cement concrete foundations or brick foundations or stone rubble masonry foundations etc. The choice of material to be used in the construction of foundations also depends on the weight of the structure on the ground.
The bearing capacity of soil plays a major role in deciding the type of foundation. The safe bearing capacity of soil should be 180N/mm2 to 200N/mm2.
Foundations are broadly classified into shallow foundations and deep foundations. The depth of the foundation means the difference of level between the ground surface and the base of the foundation. If the depth of the foundation is greater than its width the foundation is classified as a deep foundation.