## Purpose of Surveying | Civil Engineering

Purpose of Surveying in the field of Civil Engineering To determine the relative positions of the existing futures of the ground. To layout our marked positions of proposed structures on the ground. To determine areas, volumes and other related quantities. To prepare a map of a country of detailed out location of cities, towns, villages … Read more Purpose of Surveying | Civil Engineering

## Classification of Surveys according to the methods Employed in Surveying

Classification of Surveys according to the methods employed | Civil Engineering In our previous articles, we discussed classification of Surveys according to their purpose in Surveying. Now we will go on with the discussion on classification of surveys according to the method of work. Here are the two methods employed for Surveying: Triangulation Survey Transverse … Read more Classification of Surveys according to the methods Employed in Surveying

## Introduction to Surveying | Civil Engineering

#### Surveying

Surveying is the art of making suitable measurements in horizontal or vertical planes. This is one of the important subjects of civil engineering. Without taking a survey of the plot where the construction is to be carried out, the work cannot begin.

#### Levelling

Levelling is the art of representing relative positions in the vertical plane of different points on the earth’s surface.

It helps in determining the areas that are to be levelled to achieve a certain slope.

#### Principles of Surveying

All the surveys that are conducted are based on two fundamental principles. They are as follows:

1. Working from whole to part
2. Fixing a point with reference to two fixed points

#### Working from whole to part

In order to localize errors and prevent their accumulation, a set of control points is always established with great precision first for the whole area to be surveyed.

Later on, details or filled in between these control points to a relatively smaller precision.

This fundamental work principle is known as “Working from whole to part”.

#### Fixing a point with reference to two fixed points

Survey stations are fixed by atleast two measurements, either both linear or angular measurements or linear and angular measurements from two control points.

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