Surveying is a subject that is studied by Civil Engineers as well as Architects. Some Civil Engineers take up Surveying as their profession but otherwise, there are surveyors who have the expertise in the field of surveying.
They have certain important duties as a Surveyor to be carried out. In this article, we will briefly discuss their division of work and their duties towards the field of Surveying.
The work of a surveyor can be divided into four parts:
Making and recording measurements in the field.
Making the necessary calculations to determine areas, location, volume etc.
There are two types of Errors that are commonly seen to occur in Chain Surveying. For students studying the concept of Chain Surveying, study of the occurrence of different types of Errors in Chain Surveying is important. In this article, we will briefly discuss different types of Errors in Chain Surveying and the situations in which they occur.
Types of Errors:
These errors always accumulate in one direction and are serious in nature. They affect the survey work considerably.
They make measurements too long or too short.
These errors are of two types and are known as systematic errors.
They are classified as follows:
These errors make the measured length more than the actual length which results into wrong calculations by the Surveyor.
Different methods for the calculation of Areas in the field of Surveying
In this article, we will list out different methods to calculate the areas in Surveying and also study each of the method in depth… We will also explain each method with a suitable example for your better understanding…
Here are the five important rules (Methods) used for the calculation of areas in Surveying:
We will now move on with our discussion on the first rule “Midpoint ordinate rule” with a suitable example.
The rule states that if the sum of all the ordinates taken at midpoints of each division multiplied by the length of the base line having the ordinates (9 divided by number of equal parts).
In this, base line AB is divided into equal parts and the ordinates are measured in the midpoints of each division.
Area = ([O1 +O2 + O3 + …..+ On]*L)/n
L = length of baseline
n = number of equal parts, the baseline is divided
d = common distance between the ordinates
Example of the area calculation by midpoint ordinate rule
The following perpendicular offsets were taken at 10m interval from a survey line to an irregular boundary line. The ordinates are measured at midpoint of the division are 10, 13, 17, 16, 19, 21, 20 and 18m. Calculate the are enclosed by the midpoint ordinate rule.