## Height of Collimation and Rise and Fall Method | Methods of Levelling

#### Methods of Levelling | Guide to Surveying and Levelling

In this article, we will discuss two important methods of Levelling. We will also study these Methods with the help of Numerical Examples in our successive articles.

#### There are two Methods of Levelling:

1. Height of Collimation Method
2. Rise and Fall Method

#### Height of Collimation Method

This method is simple and easy.

Reduction of levels is easy.

Visualization is not necessary regarding the nature of the ground.

There is no check for intermediate sight readings;

This method is generally used where more number of readings can be taken with less number of change points for constructional work and profile levellings.

Read moreHeight of Collimation and Rise and Fall Method | Methods of Levelling

## Methods for Correcting the bearings affected by Local Attraction

#### Local Attraction | Methods for Correcting the bearings affected by Local Attraction

The deflection of a magnetic needle from its true position due to the presence of magnetic influencing material such as iron ore, magnetic rock, underground pipeline, electric cables, iron pipes, electric poles in its vicinity is called “Local Attraction”.

#### Methods of Correcting the bearings

There are two methods of correcting the bearings affected by local attraction:

1. Included angle Method
2. Error Computation

#### Included angle Method

In this method, the included angles of the traverse are calculated first, then starting from the line which is unaffected by local attraction and using the included angles, the corrected bearings of the traverse are computed.

#### Error Computation Method

In this method, the direction and the amount of local attraction at each survey station is determined.

Then starting from the line which is unaffected by local attraction, the corrected bearing of the traverse are computed.

This method is more accurate than the included angle method.

Hence it is adopted by most of the surveyors.

Read moreMethods for Correcting the bearings affected by Local Attraction

## Types of Ranging | Chain Surveying

#### Methods of Ranging in Chain Surveying | Guide to Surveying and Levelling

In measuring a survey line, the chain has to be laid out on the ground between the stations.

If the line is short, the chain could be put in alignment easily but if it is long or the end station is not clearly visible, then intermediate points has to be established in line with end points to know the directions of the line by ranging.

#### Types of Ranging

There are two types of ranging:

1. Direct ranging
2. Indirect ranging

#### Direct ranging

Direct ranging is possible when the stations are intervisible.

Ranging is done by eye-judgement. Ranging rods are erected vertically beyond each end of survey line.

The surveyor stands 2m beyond the ranging rod while the assistant folds the ranging rod vertically in the intermediate stations.

The ranging rod is held roughly in line by the thumb and fore-finger.

The surveyor directs the assistant to move the rod to the left or right until the three ranging rods appear to be in a straight line.

To avoid errors due to the ranging rods not being vertical, the lower end of the rod are cited for alignment.

Read moreTypes of Ranging | Chain Surveying

## Chaining on Sloping Ground | Guide to Surveying and Levelling

#### Chaining on Sloping Ground | Surveying and Levelling

There are two methods for determining horizontal distance on sloping ground.

1. Direct Method
2. Indirect Method

#### Direct Method of Chain Surveying

This method is also known as “Stepping Method”.

The horizontal distances are directly measured by the process of stepping.

#### Procedure

A path of chain or tape is stretched out from ‘P’.

The path length of chain or tape depends on the steepness of the ground.

The follower holds the zero end of the chain at ‘P’ and directs the leader at P1 to be in the line of PQ and stretch the chain or tape above the ground in horizontal line.

The leader then transfers the point ‘P1’ to P2 on the ground by means of plumb bob or dropping a pebble or an arrow,

Now the followers take the new position ‘P2’ and directs the leader to move forward and stretch the tape or chain in a line of PQ.

Now the followers take the new position ‘P2’ and directs the leader to move forward and stretch the tape or chain in a line of PQ and the new position is P3.

Again the leader transfers the point P3 to P4 on the ground as done earlier.

This process is repeated till the point Q is reached.

Horizontal distance PQ = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 + S5