## Types of Scales in Engineering Surveying

#### Types of Scales | Engineering Surveying

In the previous article, we discussed briefly on the topic of “Scales in Surveying” where we came across an important term “Representative factor” which forms an important part in understanding the scales in Surveying.

In this article, we will discuss different types of scales used in Surveying…

#### The scales are classified into four categories:

1. Plain Scale
2. Diagonal Scale
3. Vernier Scale
4. Scale of chords

Lets go on with the discussion of types of scales briefly for our better understanding…

#### Plain Scale

Plain Scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only. For example, measurements such as units and lengths, metres and decimetres etc.

Six different plain scales in metric used by engineers, Architects and Surveyors.

#### Diagonal Scale

On diagonal scale, it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres, decimetres and centimetres, units , tens and hundreds; yards, feet and inches etc.

A short length is divided into number of parts using the principle of similar triangle in which sides are proportional.

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## Scales used in Surveying | Engineering Surveys

#### Scales | Engineering Surveying

Scale is a fixed ratio that every distance on the plan bears with corresponding distance on the ground.

Scale can be represented by the following method

One centimetre on the plan represents some whole number of the metres on the ground.

1cm = 10m

This type of scale is called engineering scale.

1 unit of length on the plan represents some number of same units of length on the ground.

1/1000 etc…

This ratio of map distance to the corresponding ground distance independent of units of measurement is called Representative Factor (RF).

For example,

1cm = 50m

RF = 1/(50×100) = 1/5000

Above two types of scales are also known as numerical scales.

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## Classification of Surveys and Surveying Methods in Engineering

#### Classification of Survey

Study of classification of surveys is a major part of the study of Surveying as a whole. The surveys are conducted using various different instruments. The use of instruments depend upon its availability and suitability to the site.

#### Surveys are classified as following:

1. According to the instruments used for the survey
2. According to the purpose of the survey
3. According to the method employed for the survey
4. According to the field of work

In this article, we will list out the classification in each and category and study them in detail…

#### According to the instruments used

Chain Survey

Chain Survey is conducted using different lengths of chains specifically made for the surveying purpose.

Compass Survey

As the name itself suggests, the compass is used for the purpose of the survey.

Plane table Survey

Plane table is used for the purpose.

Levelling

Theodolite Survey

Theodolite is an instrument that is useful for conducting accurate surveys.

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