## Stress, Strain, Modulus of elasticity and Elastic Materials

#### Design of RCC Structures | Basic definitions and formulas

In this article, we will go through the basic definitions of Stress, strain, elastic materials and modulus of elasticity. This will be our first step towards understanding the design of “Singly reinforced sections”.

#### What is stress and how does it develop?

When an object is subjected to an external force, the object tends to build up internal resistance within itself (material). This resistance is termed as “stress”.

In short, stress can be defined as load per unit area.

Stress can be classified into four types:

1. Compressive stress
2. Tensile stress
3. Bending stress
4. Shear stress

Stress = Load/Area = W/A = N/mm2

Where, N = Newton

#### What is Strain?

To make it easier for you to understand, let’s merge the definition of stress with strain.

When an object is subjected to an external load, the internal resistance which is built up with the object itself is not enough to withstand the external load results into deformation of the object. This alteration or deformation of the object is called strain.

## Column Layout for a Residence | Civil Engineering

#### Column Layout for a residence using the Thumb rules | Building Construction

In my earlier article, we discussed three important thumb rules that are to be followed while making a column layout for any building. They are as follows:

In this article, we will see an example of a residence of which column layout is done keeping the above three thumb rules in mind.

#### Column Layout for a residence

The residential villa comprises of 1 and half floors. Initially, the column size 9″x12″ had been used with the use of M15 grade of concrete. The builder wanted to save on his budget by making the columns smaller in size. That is why, the columns in the Floor plans below are 9″x9″ in size but the Engineer made sure that M20 grade of concrete would be used for Columns.