Posts Tagged Building Construction
What to do on a”Site Inspection/Site Visit”?
Students are always curious and nervous about site visits since this is never taught in any of the colleges in the world. Students have absolutely no idea as to what is to be done when an engineer or Architect is expected to inspect the site. By site, I mean construction site.
Check out his biography: Architect Javed Kachchhi
He is an Architect, Structural Engineer and an Interior Designer. That is the reason why I was so hung up on trying to get in touch with him and write about his experiences about site inspection.
Here we go….
My first question was…
Me: Sir, could you tell us, What exactly is “Site Inspection” or “Site Visit”?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Well, let me be very specific. I am sure your readers would like that.
On a site inspection, an Architect/Engineer has to take a complete survey of the site. He has to inspect each and every element that is constructed on site and make sure that the construction is being carried on as per the drawings given by the Architect.
Me: Who monitors the site?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Monitoring the site is the work of Site Engineers. Site Engineers have to have a degree in Civil Engineering in order to qualify for the job.
Stresses in Steel and Concrete | Building Construction
In one of our previous articles, we discussed “Basic definitions and formulas”.
Now we will move on with our discussion on “Permissible stresses in concrete and steel” and “Understanding Modular ratio”.
Permissible Stresses in Concrete
Reinforced concrete designs make use of M15 grade concrete. The permissible stresses for different grades of concrete is different. They are given below:
|Sr. No.||Concrete Grade||M15||M20||M25||M30|
|1.||Stress in compression
|2.||Stress in bond (average) for plain bars||0.6||0.8||0.9||1.0|
|3.||Characteristics compressive strength||15||20||25||30|
Also refer for other values in IS:456-1978
Permissible Stresses in Steel
The permissible stresses for different grades of steel are given in the table above.
The different grades steel available in the market with their market names are as follows:
Grade I steel is known as mild steel. The abbreviation used for Mild steel is (m.s.)
High Tensile deformed steel has two types. They are as follows:
- Grade Fe415 (Tor-40 or Tistrong I)
- Grade Fe500 (Tor-50 or Tistrong II)
The names of the high tensile deformed steel have been derived from their manufacturers.
Fly ash Bricks | An alternative Building Material
Fly ash bricks are masonry units that are used in the construction of buildings. They are considered to be a part of good and affordable building materials. They contain Class C fly ash and water.
Fly ash bricks are made by compressing Class C fly ash and water at 4000psi and then curing is carried on for 24 hours at a temperature of 66 degrees Celsius steam bath. Air entrainment agent is used to toughen the bricks.
Since the concentration of calcium oxide is very high in class C fly ash, the brick is described as self cementing.
It is considered to be a good alternative to traditional mud bricks since the method of manufacture of fly ash is energy efficient that is it helps save energy, brings about reduction of mercury pollution and plus it is cost effective.
Raw materials used for the manufacture of Fly ash Bricks:
- Fly ash – which is the primary ingredient
- Sand or Stone dust – as fine aggregate
- Lime – source of calcium carbonate which results in the bricks being called “Self-cementing bricks”.
- Gypsum – to enhance the fineness of the shape of the bricks
- Cement – to increase bonding and strength
Building Construction | Civil Engineering and Design
Construction of buildings can be divided into three main categories:
- Load bearing construction
- Composite construction
- Framed construction
But among the three types, framed construction is widely used for all kinds of constructions.
An engineering structure is an assembly of number of elements transferring the loads and providing a form space to serve the desired function.
The structural design is a science and art of designing, with economy and elegance, a durable structure is that which can safely carry the forces and can serve the desired function satisfactorily during its expected service life span.
The entire process of structural planning and designing requires not only imagination and conceptual thinking but of practical aspects, such as relevant design codes and byelaws, backed up by aple experience, institution and judgement.
The process of design commences with planning of a structure, primarily to meet the functional equipment of the user or client. The functional requirements and the aspects of the aesthetics looked into normally by an architect while the aspect of safety, serviceability, durability and economy of the structure for its intended use over the life span.
What is a building?
A building can be defined as a structure consisting of walls, floors, education, business, manufacturing, storage, hospitalization, entertainment, worship etc.
Normally all building are constructed according to drawings and specifications prepared by architects. Each city has prescribed building bye-laws to which building must confirm. The building bye-laws lay down norms like minimum front, side and rear backs, minimum height and area of habitable rooms, kitchen, bath, minimum area of windows, width of staircase etc, apart from respecting the bye-laws the building design should ensure optimum utilization of built-up space, thermal comfort, proper ventilation, desirable illumination and acoustical characteristics and it should satisfy the functional requirements of people who live and work in the building.
Carbon-negative cement | New revolutionary Building material
Carbon-negative cement…?? Sound different, doesn’t it?
Have you ever realized how much carbon is emitted because of using concrete in the construction of buildings, highways, dams, bridges etc?
Well, here’s an answer to that. It is found that out of the 100% carbon dioxide emissions, 5% of the emissions are caused by human activities. Majority of the carbon emission is caused by usage of concrete in the constructions. How? Cement is an indispensible ingredient used for making concrete. Cement is made by baking limestone and clay powders under intense temperatures (high temperature). The intense heat which is required for the production of cement is achieved by burning of fossil fuels which in turn release large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide is also released when the conversion of limestone takes place in the kilns. This conversion is called “Calcination”. It has been observed that the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during calcination is much higher than that which is released due to burning of fossil fuels.
Recently, a British company called “Novacem” came up with this concept of manufacturing ‘carbon-negative’ cement that absorbs more carbon-dioxide than it emits over its entire life cycle.
Design of Overhead Water Tank | Design of RCC Structures
As per NBC (National Building Code, 2005) standards,
Water required per person per day = 150 litres
Drinking water = 4litres per person per day
Calculation for an overhead water tank for a 3 BHK Villa:
Let us assume the average family size = 5 persons in the house
Water required for daily chores per person per day as per NBC norms;
150 x 5 = 750 litres
Drinking water required:
4 x 5 = 20 litres
Total quantity of water required = 750+20 = 770 litres
Volume of water = 770/1000 = 0.77 cubic metres