Posts Tagged Building Construction
Types of construction methods
When you purchase a home, more thought is put into the location and layout of the property than the methods of construction that were used to build it. That is something that becomes incredibly important when you decide that you want to build your own home from scratch. You quickly learn how different structural methods and materials used in the construction can affect the bottom line. With a definite budget in place, you really need to pay attention to all of these details, which usually means that such things as amenities and house features take second place to the actual build.
In our earlier articles, we have discussed an entire guide for RCC construction. The guide includes the detailed procedures for carrying out various different calculations for designing different parts of the building. Foundation design is the most important and first step in the design of RCC structures.
One of the most commonly used methods of construction is one that basically dates back centuries, and that is masonry. Brick and stone are durable materials that can withstand the elements better than most. Building a brick home on a stone slab means that you will have a solid home with a strong foundation, but it is also a little more labor intensive than most of the modern methods that are available today. That additional labour can drive build costs up, but money can also be saved by using re-purposed bricks, which can also add a very unique look to the home.
What to do on a”Site Inspection/Site Visit”?
Students are always curious and nervous about site visits since this is never taught in any of the colleges in the world. Students have absolutely no idea as to what is to be done when an engineer or Architect is expected to inspect the site. By site, I mean construction site.
Check out his biography: Architect Javed Kachchhi
He is an Architect, Structural Engineer and an Interior Designer. That is the reason why I was so hung up on trying to get in touch with him and write about his experiences about site inspection.
Here we go….
My first question was…
Me: Sir, could you tell us, What exactly is “Site Inspection” or “Site Visit”?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Well, let me be very specific. I am sure your readers would like that.
On a site inspection, an Architect/Engineer has to take a complete survey of the site. He has to inspect each and every element that is constructed on site and make sure that the construction is being carried on as per the drawings given by the Architect.
Me: Who monitors the site?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Monitoring the site is the work of Site Engineers. Site Engineers have to have a degree in Civil Engineering in order to qualify for the job.
Stresses in Steel and Concrete | Building Construction
In one of our previous articles, we discussed “Basic definitions and formulas”.
Now we will move on with our discussion on “Permissible stresses in concrete and steel” and “Understanding Modular ratio”.
Permissible Stresses in Concrete
Reinforced concrete designs make use of M15 grade concrete. The permissible stresses for different grades of concrete is different. They are given below:
|Sr. No.||Concrete Grade||M15||M20||M25||M30|
|1.||Stress in compression
|2.||Stress in bond (average) for plain bars||0.6||0.8||0.9||1.0|
|3.||Characteristics compressive strength||15||20||25||30|
Also refer for other values in IS:456-1978
Permissible Stresses in Steel
The permissible stresses for different grades of steel are given in the table above.
The different grades steel available in the market with their market names are as follows:
Grade I steel is known as mild steel. The abbreviation used for Mild steel is (m.s.)
High Tensile deformed steel has two types. They are as follows:
- Grade Fe415 (Tor-40 or Tistrong I)
- Grade Fe500 (Tor-50 or Tistrong II)
The names of the high tensile deformed steel have been derived from their manufacturers.
Fly ash Bricks | An alternative Building Material
Fly ash bricks are masonry units that are used in the construction of buildings. They are considered to be a part of good and affordable building materials. They contain Class C fly ash and water.
Fly ash bricks are made by compressing Class C fly ash and water at 4000psi and then curing is carried on for 24 hours at a temperature of 66 degrees Celsius steam bath. Air entrainment agent is used to toughen the bricks.
Since the concentration of calcium oxide is very high in class C fly ash, the brick is described as self cementing.
It is considered to be a good alternative to traditional mud bricks since the method of manufacture of fly ash is energy efficient that is it helps save energy, brings about reduction of mercury pollution and plus it is cost effective.
Raw materials used for the manufacture of Fly ash Bricks:
- Fly ash – which is the primary ingredient
- Sand or Stone dust – as fine aggregate
- Lime – source of calcium carbonate which results in the bricks being called “Self-cementing bricks”.
- Gypsum – to enhance the fineness of the shape of the bricks
- Cement – to increase bonding and strength