Foundation is the base of any structure. Without a firm foundation, the structure cannot stand. That is the reason why we have to be very cautious with the design of foundations because our entire structure rests on the foundation.
The strength of the foundation determines the life of the structure. As we discussed in the earlier article, design of foundation depends on the type of soil, type of structure and its load.
On that basis, the foundations are basically divided into Shallow Foundations and Deep Foundations.
In this article, we are going discuss the step by step guide to Column Footing Design….
Concrete has been used as a decking material for decades. There are finishes achieved in concrete that give a good deck surface.
For example, salt finish concrete is commonly used and seen on many sidewalks. The surface of deck of the deck is non-slippery. Salt finish concrete can also be used with different colours.
A different type of look is achieved on the concrete by adding acid stains.
Also, there are chemicals available in the market that are added in the concrete mix which helps in keeping the deck cool.
Masonry decks have also been used for decades. Flagstone or travertine can be used as decking materials. The material and labour cost is more in these types of decks.
Tropical Pool Deck tiles
The pool deck tiles that are made of tropical wood are gaining popularity these days. They are assembled on a plastic base having high density. There are ways in which the pool deck tiles can be used. They could be:
- Staggered joints
- Aligned joints
As a measure to resist termites and moisture, the pool deck tiles are coated with non-toxic chemical coatings. It makes the surface of the deck safer to walk by reducing the chances of slipping.
Use of tropical wood makes the deck tiles more convenient because the surface temperature of the deck tiles remains regulated. Be it too cold or hot, it feels comfortable to walk on them.
The writer explains how green lighting can have a huge impact on the savings. It may seem surprising as to how such a small change in choice could help you save a lot of money. LEDs have been the top choice of the designers because of the variety of pleasing colour options that are available. The article details out the two success stories of the companies that have chosen to go for LEDs replacing their existing incandescent light bulbs. It has been really surprising since the amount that they have saved millions of dollars by going for a greener option of lighting.
We are all acquainted with LEDs. LED stands for light emitting diode. Initially, the LEDs weren’t as efficient as they are today. The article details out the pros and cons of using LED lighting. Today, LED is considered under the category of green electronic components. They have played a great role in revolutionizing the lighting industry.
The author interviews the Indian Architect Javed Kachchhi regarding the construction site inspection. Various important questions have been answered that would be incredibly useful to the Architecture and engineering students as well as the young graduates. The questions regarding issues such as monitoring of the site, role of project management team, architects role on site inspection, mistakes committed by workers on site, scenario of construction sites in towns, scenario of construction sites in cities, role of contractors etc.
Sinking foundations could be disastrous for the life of a structure if not paid attention to. The damage and repair guide outlines the complex procedure into three simple steps. Every step in the guide has been explained in detail.
Here are the following three steps:
1) Examination of the structure
2) After the problem identification, an expert relating to the field is to be hired.
3) Outline of methodologies or techniques for the repair of sinking foundation
Sustainable City in Japan – Toyota
Toyota, a city in Japan has been working to achieve ecological sustainability and has been taking effective measures to strive towards it. Toyota is called the eco-ful town. It has earned its renown for building a life sized model of sustainable living and demonstrating it successfully. Use of renewable energy and achieving energy efficiency has been its prime goal.
Design of Roads in Toyota
The roads laid in the city of Toyota have been paid special attention to. The roads are coated with water retaining and thermal insulation substances to minimize heat emission.
The transportation system has been very well developed in Toyota. It is called as “Demand responsive transportation“.
Poor Economic state of the World | Effect on Construction Industry and its prevention
Sudden Economic change is extremely bad for Construction industry of any country. The status of Global markets determines the behaviour of an individual country. For example, if the economy of United Kingdom is suffering due to employment problems in the country or financial crisis; it affects the whole of Europe. On the whole, the economy of Europe plays a great role in moving the market.
The first and foremost bad effect of the market would be:
Banks going bankrupt. Banks are the main sources of capital for major construction projects.
Construction industry is capital intensive.
Because of the banks going bankrupt, there is not enough capital in the market that could be utilized for new projects. Because of less money in the market, people are unable to afford luxury homes, offices. This has two major effects on the construction industry:
- Since, people do not have the money to buy buildings, Existing projects are stalled due to increasing raw material cost and decreasing real estate value. No more gigantic home loans available.
- After analyzing the scenario of the bad economic conditions of the market, the builders decide to scrap the idea of new constructions and decide to wait for the right time to start the project. This brings recession in the construction industry which affects architects, engineers and mainly workers badly.
Financial Crisis in the country will result in major construction firms going bankrupt which in turn would be responsible for the loss of thousands of jobs.
Is it possible to prevent this from happening? If yes, then how?
A new system of design is needed to ensure very low energy footprint, sustainable development and optimum use of local materials.
A renewed focus is needed on Green building Design…
What to do on a”Site Inspection/Site Visit”?
Students are always curious and nervous about site visits since this is never taught in any of the colleges in the world. Students have absolutely no idea as to what is to be done when an engineer or Architect is expected to inspect the site. By site, I mean construction site.
Check out his biography: Architect Javed Kachchhi
He is an Architect, Structural Engineer and an Interior Designer. That is the reason why I was so hung up on trying to get in touch with him and write about his experiences about site inspection.
Here we go….
My first question was…
Me: Sir, could you tell us, What exactly is “Site Inspection” or “Site Visit”?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Well, let me be very specific. I am sure your readers would like that.
On a site inspection, an Architect/Engineer has to take a complete survey of the site. He has to inspect each and every element that is constructed on site and make sure that the construction is being carried on as per the drawings given by the Architect.
Me: Who monitors the site?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Monitoring the site is the work of Site Engineers. Site Engineers have to have a degree in Civil Engineering in order to qualify for the job.