RCC Circular Water Tanks
Circular water tanks have the properties of the cylinder. Cylinder stress is exerted on the circular water tank. It is distributed with rotational symmetry. The stress distribution remains unchanged if the object is rotated about a fixed axis.
There are three different patterns of cylinder stress namely;
- Hoop stress or circumferential stress – it is in tangential direction
- Axial stress – parallel to the axis of the cylinder
- Radial stress – It is perpendicular to the symmetry axis but is coplanar
Some important theory for Circular Water Tanks
The base of the circular water tank has a flexible joint. The tank rests on the ground. The wall of the tank is designed for hoop tension.
Formula for Hoop tension (Ht)
The formula for calculating hoop tension is,
Ht = PD/2 ———————————— equation 1
P = water pressure on wall
D = diameter of tank in metres
The formula for pressure is given by,
P = d x h —————————————equation 2
d = density of water = 10kN/m3
h = depth of water in metres
Types of construction methods
When you purchase a home, more thought is put into the location and layout of the property than the methods of construction that were used to build it. That is something that becomes incredibly important when you decide that you want to build your own home from scratch. You quickly learn how different structural methods and materials used in the construction can affect the bottom line. With a definite budget in place, you really need to pay attention to all of these details, which usually means that such things as amenities and house features take second place to the actual build.
In our earlier articles, we have discussed an entire guide for RCC construction. The guide includes the detailed procedures for carrying out various different calculations for designing different parts of the building. Foundation design is the most important and first step in the design of RCC structures.
One of the most commonly used methods of construction is one that basically dates back centuries, and that is masonry. Brick and stone are durable materials that can withstand the elements better than most. Building a brick home on a stone slab means that you will have a solid home with a strong foundation, but it is also a little more labor intensive than most of the modern methods that are available today. That additional labour can drive build costs up, but money can also be saved by using re-purposed bricks, which can also add a very unique look to the home.
New revolutionary Ecovillage development in the UK | Lammas
It is one ecovillage in the UK to attain prospective planning permission. The permission was achieved in 2009 after three years of planning campaign (1). It is situated in Northern Pembrokeshire, Wales. It consists of only 9 households spread over an area of 75 acres. The concept of the development of ecovillage was to provide the residents with a sustainable lifestyle. The aim was to help residents learn to grow their food, fulfill their own water and energy needs without depending on mains (2).
Locally available materials have been used for construction. The materials include local timber, straw bale insulation and locally sourced aggregate. Green techniques have been incorporated in the design of ecovillage. Use of masonry stove, passive solar heating and a wood fired kitchen. Department of Energy and Climate Change funded the ecovillage project (3).
The project was designed in a way that it could be replicated anywhere across the country. Each household purchased a 1000 year agricultural lease from the organization that provides them security and autonomy. They employed systems of Permaculture which were used in Australia in 1970s. These techniques helped in maximizing the land productivity. It emulated the natural ecosystems, increase in biodiversity in the local area. It also helped in increasing the productivity organic food. There was a considerable decrease in the levels of carbon pollution (4).
Factors responsible for shaping our towns and cities
There are two major drivers of change that are responsible for shaping our towns and cities.
1) Technological impact
This has changed the way people connect with each other across the globe. It has given rise to new businesses and has also resulted in the increase in urban population.
Technological impact also has positive benefits. It has opened up ways and means by which we could attain sustainable living by use of clean technologies. It is time we take charge of our towns and cities and develop them in a way beneficial to mankind in long run. People prefer to live in the heart of the city for important reasons such as close proximity to offices, leisure areas etc.
To bring about sustainable development, we have to focus on connecting places or linking homes, offices and leisure places in close proximity to each other. This would also help in reducing ecological footprint by reduction in energy consumption.
2) Changing lifestyles and Ecological balance
Our global population has been on the rise from the past 100 years. It grew from under 1 billion inhabitant to 6 billion inhabitants. It is estimated that if the population continues to grow at the current rate, it will reach 8.5 billion inhabitants by 2025.
Urbanisation is taking place rapidly. At the start of the century, around 10% people lived in cities but now the number of people moving into the cities is growing at an alarming rate. 50% of urban population now lives in cities. This growing population and urbanisation is adding a lot of pressure on the use of resources and the environment.
Concrete has been used as a decking material for decades. There are finishes achieved in concrete that give a good deck surface.
For example, salt finish concrete is commonly used and seen on many sidewalks. The surface of deck of the deck is non-slippery. Salt finish concrete can also be used with different colours.
A different type of look is achieved on the concrete by adding acid stains.
Also, there are chemicals available in the market that are added in the concrete mix which helps in keeping the deck cool.
Masonry decks have also been used for decades. Flagstone or travertine can be used as decking materials. The material and labour cost is more in these types of decks.
Tropical Pool Deck tiles
The pool deck tiles that are made of tropical wood are gaining popularity these days. They are assembled on a plastic base having high density. There are ways in which the pool deck tiles can be used. They could be:
- Staggered joints
- Aligned joints
As a measure to resist termites and moisture, the pool deck tiles are coated with non-toxic chemical coatings. It makes the surface of the deck safer to walk by reducing the chances of slipping.
Use of tropical wood makes the deck tiles more convenient because the surface temperature of the deck tiles remains regulated. Be it too cold or hot, it feels comfortable to walk on them.