Archive for category Civil Projects
Sinking Foundation | Building Construction
Foundation is the most primary component of the building on which it stands. The life of the building depends on the quality of foundation. For a good and stable foundation, the structural design of the foundation has to be done properly in a systematic way under the guidance of a structural engineer.
If the casting of foundation is not paid attention to and is not laid properly on a stable soil, the structural problems are bound to develop. Every soil has a specific bearing capacity which is very necessary to be checked before designing the foundation. Without the consideration of bearing capacity of soil, the structural design for the foundation may not be suitable for that land.
Cause of Sinking Foundation
Sinking foundation is a problem that occurs in case of improperly laid foundations which is the result of careless consideration of the soil type. The problems are very crucial and have to be solved as soon as they are detected in order to prevent the structure from further damage.
Detecting Foundation problems
People living in areas with unstable soil conditions need to watch out for the signs of foundation problems. Some of the signs could be as follows:
The house is gradually slanting to one side. (This is a very prominent example of sinking foundation problem. As soon as you notice this happening, you can immediately conclude it to be related to foundation and take action immediately before the condition of the structure gets worse.)
Fly ash Bricks | An alternative Building Material
Fly ash bricks are masonry units that are used in the construction of buildings. They are considered to be a part of good and affordable building materials. They contain Class C fly ash and water.
Fly ash bricks are made by compressing Class C fly ash and water at 4000psi and then curing is carried on for 24 hours at a temperature of 66 degrees Celsius steam bath. Air entrainment agent is used to toughen the bricks.
Since the concentration of calcium oxide is very high in class C fly ash, the brick is described as self cementing.
It is considered to be a good alternative to traditional mud bricks since the method of manufacture of fly ash is energy efficient that is it helps save energy, brings about reduction of mercury pollution and plus it is cost effective.
Raw materials used for the manufacture of Fly ash Bricks:
- Fly ash – which is the primary ingredient
- Sand or Stone dust – as fine aggregate
- Lime – source of calcium carbonate which results in the bricks being called “Self-cementing bricks”.
- Gypsum – to enhance the fineness of the shape of the bricks
- Cement – to increase bonding and strength
Sweden is one of the most prosperous of Scandinavian nations in Europe. It has a long history of traditions and cultural heritage. Sweden is famous for its amazing Swedish Cheese. Stockholm is a beautiful city, and its latest jewel would be the new Victoria Tower. It would be the second highest building in Stockholm after the Kaknästornet.
The name “Victoria” comes from’ the crown-princess of Sweden. Construction on this tower began in May 2009. There was a lot of debate about the final height of the building. This tower would be operated by Scandic Hotels.
Changing trends in the choice of Building materials
Nowadays, people are gaining more knowledge about eco-friendly lifestyle. They are realizing that eco-friendly materials are much better and safer as compared to the synthetic and energy intensive materials. Though use of synthetic materials give a very stylish and trendy look to the place, they are not eco-friendly. The trend is definitely away from the older classical looks, associated with bygone grandeur and towards more contemporary styling. Fabric is more textured and interesting, with graphics, florals and interesting weaves and patterns to the fore.
The palette is lighter and brighter than before, in keeping with the move away from the traditonal to the contemporary, also following what is seen as international, stylish and sophisticated. Instead of saying ‘the look has changed’, I would rather say the look and feel of traditional interiors has evolved. New design languages generated by new materials and new uses of existing materials have resulted in a truly matured genre of beautiful and amazing interiors.
Independence Hall is a national landmark in United States. It is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Chestnut street between 5th and 6th Streets. It achieved its importance primarily because this was the location where American Declaration of Independence (4th July, 1776)was signed and United States Constitution was debated and brought into force. It was further listed under the category of World Heritage Sites in 1979.
Construction of Independence Hall
Independence was constructed in Georgian Style which was prevalent and in practice in most of the English speaking countries between 1720 to 1840.
The hall was designed by two architects namely Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton and its design was executed by Woolley. Red brick was used majorly for the construction of facades and this building was popularly known as “Red Brick Building”. It is 41m in height.
A lesson for all the Civil Engineers and Designers to learn
I got a project of designing (Architectural Design) a Hostel in Lucknow, India. The Structural design that is, column positions and wall construction was already done. The client wanted me to design a Hostel keeping the column positions and exterior wall construction intact. I have written this article to address all the Civil engineering students as well as Civil Engineers to avoid making such blunders while they design. Please do read this article because understanding the intensity of the job of a Civil Engineer is must for every student and professional. I guess this realization has been washed away and forgotten in the wave of commercialism.
Hostel Design, Lucknow, India
The client mailed me the layout of the existing construction. After I studied the layout, I figured out that the Column layout was pathetic. I wonder what kind of Civil Engineer must have made the layout or if at all any Civil Engineer has done it.
Errors in Construction
Wrong size of the Columns
The size of the columns was 9”x9” and the building is supposed to be constructed upto G+2 floors which is really disastrous for the structure.
It could lead to structural failure and ultimately structural collapse.
(The duty of the Civil Engineer is to understand and not make such dramatic blunders. The consequences of this kind of structural design could be disastrous.)
9”x9” size columns are only preferred if you were to construct only a ground floor structure using M15 grade concrete. If you are to construct another floor that is (G+1), the minimum size of the column should not be less than 9”x12” using M15 grade concrete.
If the client insists on using smaller columns (9”x9”); in that case, use of M20 grade concrete should be done mandatorily and the construction should not be initiated before the client agrees to do so.