Archive for category Building Construction
Redesigning Abids, Hyderabad | Urban Design Project
Urban design is complex but fascinating. At least I find it to be exciting and challenging since urban designers get to shape the lifestyles of the people. I would like to discuss one of the urban design projects I did in Architecture college in a group. We were a group of 12 students, all of us skilled in different areas. When we began, we felt the project work was intimidating and that it was too early for us to be working on one. I am going to be writing a series of articles of how we dealt with this project, the design process that we followed and all the survey methods that we used. It was a great experience.
Aim of the Project:
Conservation of the original market character by restricting to various patterns, colours, to create a scenario that invites tourists without disturbing the old and traditional built forms to relate to the original concepts. We are aiming at Sustainability…Sustaining and improving the living standards and reviving the importance of the commercial hub in terms of commercial activity.
We listed out the target issues in terms of Sustainable Development. Listing aims of the project is the first and most important thing to do before beginning any kind of project. This gave us a clear understanding of the direction in which we should be progressing.
This is the design process we followed for redesigning the commercial hub. We had a brainstorming session with our group and came up with all the possible approaches we could take to design the project.
Stage One: Case study of 1,000,000 sq m of area in the centre of commercial hub (studied land use pattern)
Stage Two: Detailed Study and Analysis of the Critical Zone for Redesign
Abids is one of the oldest commercial hub in the Hyderabad city. Abids constitutes the dwellings of Upper middle class families. People from all over the city came to shop jewellery and textiles at Abids. With the decentralisation of the commercial markets, the crowd coming to Abids has lessened as compared to what it was earlier. The good thing about Abids is that it still has a unique shopping market which other places don’t have. This is what we identified as the unique selling point for the regeneration of Abids. To regenerate, it is essential to identify issues and come up with solutions that could enhance the functioning of the commercial hub and help restoring it to its original character.
Here are the issues that we identified:
- Traffic issue
- Lack of convenient Parking
- Scope of redesign of facades
- Organizing and redesigning streetscape
- Informal activity
- No recreational area
Stage Three: Major focused area selected for redesign
How to design a retaining wall? | RCC Design
Main parts of Retaining Wall
The stem and base are the main parts of a cantilever type of retaining wall. The toe is the front portion and heel is the back portion. The stem is supported at the base and the wall tapers towards the top.
Generally the height of the wall known and approximate dimensions are required to be assumed.
The length of the base is between 0.4 to 0.7 times the height of the wall. Toe to base ratio is 1:4. The thickness of the base slab shall be assumed to be little more than the thickness of the stem at the bottom. The minimum thickness of the stem shall be 200mm for construction purposes.
Earth pressure on wall
A length of one metre of the wall is considered for design.
Earth levelled up to the top of wall:
From Rankine’s theory of earth pressure
P = total pressure on wall acting at H/3 from the base
H = total height in metres
W = weight or density of earth in kN/m3
Φ = angle of repose of earth
Stability of retaining wall
The assumed trial section of the wall shall be checked for stability. Stability check is required for (i) overturning and (ii) sliding. In both the cases the factor of safety shall not be less than 1.5.
1. Factor of safety for overturning
(Moment due to load of wall)/(Moment due to force P) ≥ 1.5
2. Factor of safety for sliding
(Total load of wall x μ)/Force P ≥ 1.5
Dream Home turning into a nightmare
I took quite some time to write this article. I am really troubled with the idea of people wanting to design their own homes without the help of a Architects or Engineers. It has been really tough telling people that every project is different and needs to be designed accordingly. Every site has different characteristics and hence the design differs.
People are more focused on saving a few thousands that they would have to pay to the experts for getting all the drawings right and in perfect order. They want to do it themselves. For some reason, they believe that they could do a better job than the experts themselves.
I am a professional and I truly appreciate people wanting to participate in the design of their homes, but the participation is limited to suggestions and discussions. The participation of people involves telling the architect about what they imagine their dream house to be. It should be borne in mind that people might have an idea of what they want their dream house to look like but they will never be able to create it. Try me! Describe what you want your house to look like and leave it to me and I will come up with something that will fill your heart with joy.
This is only because I have studied for 7 long years which has helped me develop my design skills. I create what my clients dream and feel. When you describe your ideas to an Architect, he knows exactly what you are looking at and what you want. He is a technical person and a designer and knows how he could turn your dream into a reality.
7 step design procedure for RCC Circular Water Tank
In our previous article, we discussed some important theory and formulas required in the design procedure of Circular Water Tank.
We will now move on with the stepwise design procedure for Water tank design.
Determine the design constants such as σcbc, σct, m, σst
σcbc = permissible compressive stress in concrete
σct = permissible tensile stress in concrete
m = modular ratio
σst = permissible compressive stress in steel
- Dimensions of the tank
- Volume of the tank
- Area of the tank (by assuming its depth)
RCC Circular Water Tanks
Circular water tanks have the properties of the cylinder. Cylinder stress is exerted on the circular water tank. It is distributed with rotational symmetry. The stress distribution remains unchanged if the object is rotated about a fixed axis.
There are three different patterns of cylinder stress namely;
- Hoop stress or circumferential stress – it is in tangential direction
- Axial stress – parallel to the axis of the cylinder
- Radial stress – It is perpendicular to the symmetry axis but is coplanar
Some important theory for Circular Water Tanks
The base of the circular water tank has a flexible joint. The tank rests on the ground. The wall of the tank is designed for hoop tension.
Formula for Hoop tension (Ht)
The formula for calculating hoop tension is,
Ht = PD/2 ———————————— equation 1
P = water pressure on wall
D = diameter of tank in metres
The formula for pressure is given by,
P = d x h —————————————equation 2
d = density of water = 10kN/m3
h = depth of water in metres