Archive for category Building Construction
Foundation is the base of any structure. Without a firm foundation, the structure cannot stand. That is the reason why we have to be very cautious with the design of foundations because our entire structure rests on the foundation.
The strength of the foundation determines the life of the structure. As we discussed in the earlier article, design of foundation depends on the type of soil, type of structure and its load.
On that basis, the foundations are basically divided into Shallow Foundations and Deep Foundations.
In this article, we are going discuss the step by step guide to Column Footing Design….
7 step design procedure for RCC Circular Water Tank
In our previous article, we discussed some important theory and formulas required in the design procedure of Circular Water Tank.
We will now move on with the stepwise design procedure for Water tank design.
Determine the design constants such as σcbc, σct, m, σst
σcbc = permissible compressive stress in concrete
σct = permissible tensile stress in concrete
m = modular ratio
σst = permissible compressive stress in steel
- Dimensions of the tank
- Volume of the tank
- Area of the tank (by assuming its depth)
RCC Circular Water Tanks
Circular water tanks have the properties of the cylinder. Cylinder stress is exerted on the circular water tank. It is distributed with rotational symmetry. The stress distribution remains unchanged if the object is rotated about a fixed axis.
There are three different patterns of cylinder stress namely;
- Hoop stress or circumferential stress – it is in tangential direction
- Axial stress – parallel to the axis of the cylinder
- Radial stress – It is perpendicular to the symmetry axis but is coplanar
Some important theory for Circular Water Tanks
The base of the circular water tank has a flexible joint. The tank rests on the ground. The wall of the tank is designed for hoop tension.
Formula for Hoop tension (Ht)
The formula for calculating hoop tension is,
Ht = PD/2 ———————————— equation 1
P = water pressure on wall
D = diameter of tank in metres
The formula for pressure is given by,
P = d x h —————————————equation 2
d = density of water = 10kN/m3
h = depth of water in metres
Types of construction methods
When you purchase a home, more thought is put into the location and layout of the property than the methods of construction that were used to build it. That is something that becomes incredibly important when you decide that you want to build your own home from scratch. You quickly learn how different structural methods and materials used in the construction can affect the bottom line. With a definite budget in place, you really need to pay attention to all of these details, which usually means that such things as amenities and house features take second place to the actual build.
In our earlier articles, we have discussed an entire guide for RCC construction. The guide includes the detailed procedures for carrying out various different calculations for designing different parts of the building. Foundation design is the most important and first step in the design of RCC structures.
One of the most commonly used methods of construction is one that basically dates back centuries, and that is masonry. Brick and stone are durable materials that can withstand the elements better than most. Building a brick home on a stone slab means that you will have a solid home with a strong foundation, but it is also a little more labor intensive than most of the modern methods that are available today. That additional labour can drive build costs up, but money can also be saved by using re-purposed bricks, which can also add a very unique look to the home.
Factors responsible for shaping our towns and cities
There are two major drivers of change that are responsible for shaping our towns and cities.
1) Technological impact
This has changed the way people connect with each other across the globe. It has given rise to new businesses and has also resulted in the increase in urban population.
Technological impact also has positive benefits. It has opened up ways and means by which we could attain sustainable living by use of clean technologies. It is time we take charge of our towns and cities and develop them in a way beneficial to mankind in long run. People prefer to live in the heart of the city for important reasons such as close proximity to offices, leisure areas etc.
To bring about sustainable development, we have to focus on connecting places or linking homes, offices and leisure places in close proximity to each other. This would also help in reducing ecological footprint by reduction in energy consumption.
2) Changing lifestyles and Ecological balance
Our global population has been on the rise from the past 100 years. It grew from under 1 billion inhabitant to 6 billion inhabitants. It is estimated that if the population continues to grow at the current rate, it will reach 8.5 billion inhabitants by 2025.
Urbanisation is taking place rapidly. At the start of the century, around 10% people lived in cities but now the number of people moving into the cities is growing at an alarming rate. 50% of urban population now lives in cities. This growing population and urbanisation is adding a lot of pressure on the use of resources and the environment.
What to do on a”Site Inspection/Site Visit”?
Students are always curious and nervous about site visits since this is never taught in any of the colleges in the world. Students have absolutely no idea as to what is to be done when an engineer or Architect is expected to inspect the site. By site, I mean construction site.
Check out his biography: Architect Javed Kachchhi
He is an Architect, Structural Engineer and an Interior Designer. That is the reason why I was so hung up on trying to get in touch with him and write about his experiences about site inspection.
Here we go….
My first question was…
Me: Sir, could you tell us, What exactly is “Site Inspection” or “Site Visit”?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Well, let me be very specific. I am sure your readers would like that.
On a site inspection, an Architect/Engineer has to take a complete survey of the site. He has to inspect each and every element that is constructed on site and make sure that the construction is being carried on as per the drawings given by the Architect.
Me: Who monitors the site?
Ar. Javed Kachchhi: Monitoring the site is the work of Site Engineers. Site Engineers have to have a degree in Civil Engineering in order to qualify for the job.